An individual who is employed to learn an apprenticeable occupation and is registered with a sponsor in an approved apprenticeship program.

Apprenticeable Occupation

A skilled trade(s) or craft(s), which has been recognized by the United States Department of Labour, Office of Apprenticeship, Training, Employer, and Labour Services (OATELS) or the WSATC and meets the criteria established in WAC 296-05.

Apprenticeship Agreement

Written agreement between an apprentice and either the apprentice's employer(s), or an apprenticeship committee acting as agent for employer(s), containing the terms and conditions of the employment and training of the apprentice.

Apprenticeship Committee

A quasi-public entity approved by the WSATC to perform apprenticeship and training services for employers and employees.

Apprenticeship Program

A plan for administering an apprenticeship agreement(s). The plan must contain all terms and conditions for the qualification, recruitment, selection, employment, and training of apprentices, including such matters as the requirement for a written apprenticeship agreement.

Apprenticeship Training, Employer, and Labour Services (ATELS)

Federal apprenticeship agency that oversees federal apprenticeship program registration and standard changes and approvals.


Approved by the WSATC or a person or entity authorized by the WSATC to do so.

Assessment Fee

As used in TESDA, this term means the amount charged to the examinees/candidates for the administration of competency assessment. It shall be based on the cost of supplies and materials as well as other administrative and technical expenses. (Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

Assessment Moderation

The process of establishing comparability of judgments of standards of candidate’s performance across different assessors, assessment center and venues, in order to ensure that assessment is valid, reliable and fair. (Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

Assessor Training

A course or training program designed to equip participants with the knowledge, values and skills in the administration, evaluation and interpretation of competencies assessment. (Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)


As used in TESDA, this term refers to the process to review the practice against documented procedure (Omnibus Guidelines on Program Registration), also termed as Internal Audit. (TESDA QA Documentation System Procedure)


a. the organization being audited. (ISO)

b. as used in TESDA, this term refers to the area/s or person/s to be audited. (TESDA QA System Documentation Procedure)


As used in TESDA, this term refers to the person qualified and authorized to conduct an audit. (TESDA QA System Documentation Procedure)

Audit Plan

Refers to a written plan prepared prior to the conduct of audit which details activities such as where to go, what to do, when to do it, whom to see. (TESDA QA System Documentation Procedure)

Audit Report

As used in TESDA, this term refers to observations and findings during the audit that are meant to assist the auditee to improve the system. (TESDA QA System Documentation Procedure)

Audit Team

Refers to a group of people designated to conduct the audit. (Procedures Manual on Compliance Audit)


The process used by a recognized institution, board or professional body to make sure a qualification meets national requirements: and/or to make sure an awarding body is competent to award such a qualification.

Assessment of Prior Learning (APL)

The process which formally recognizes a candidate's previous work as other experience which can then be used as proof of competence leading towards a qualification.

Approved Center

An organisation approved to assess and verify qualifications. They are mainly places of employment or providers of vocational education and training such as tertiary colleges. They must have internal procedures to ensure the quality and consistency of assessments.


The process through which evidence of candidates’ attainments is evaluated against agreed criteria to provide the evidence for a qualification.


A person who conducts assessments against a unit standard or a series of unit standards. The assessor is experienced, trained, competent and registered by the awarding body.

Awarding Body

A recognised organisation such as the NTA, that offers qualifications and awards. Awarding Bodies design qualifications and assessment instruments and ensure that quality assurance systems are in place for them. An Awarding Body issues certificates or certificates of unit credit to candidates achieving the requirements of a qualification.




Process of comparing an organization’s or company’s best practices to that of other organizations or companies using objective and subjective criteria. The process compares programs and strategic positions of competitors of exemplary organizations to those in the company reviewing its status for use as reference points in the formation of organization decisions and objectives. Comparing how an organization or company performs a specific activity with methods of a competitor or some other organization doing the same thing is a way to identify the best practice and to learn how to lower costs, reduce defects, increase quality, or improve outcomes linked to organization or company excellence. (Business Encyclopaedia)

Blended Learning Program

Refers to the combination of online and supervised workshop training where the knowledge theories are conducted through the internet and the supervised workshop training are conducted face to face. (TESDA Circular No. 37, s. 2009, “Implementing Guidelines in the Registration of E-Learning Training Program”



Candidate /Learner

Students in the school system register to pursue a CVQ in an occupational area. They are trained by assessors/teachers who determine their competence against the CARICOM Approved Standards. Candidates are awarded units or full certificates by CXC after demonstrating competence in the occupational area. (AHB)


The termination of the registration or approval status of a program at the request of the supervisor or sponsor. Cancellation also refers to the termination of an apprenticeship agreement at the request of the apprentice, supervisor, or sponsor.


Is the sequence and variety of occupations (paid and unpaid) which one undertakes throughout a lifetime. More broadly, career includes life roles, leisure activities, learning and work. (Queensland Department of Education and Training)

Career Guidance

Refers to services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers. Such services may be found in schools, universities and colleges, in training institutions, in public employment services, in the workplace, in the voluntary or community sector in the private sector. (Institute of Career Guidance, U.K.)

Career Profiling

As used in TESDA, refers to that career guidance service geared towards helping students, out-of-school youth and unemployed adults decide intelligently on what career to pursue by having them undergo a career self-assessment of their abilities and occupational interests. The result are processed into an individual profile which shall serve as the basis for the individual to decide on what particular program to undergo in pursuit of that job best suited to his/her strengths. (CGIDD-TSDO, 2010)

Certificate of Competency

A document issued by the authority to individuals who were assessed as competent in a single unit or cluster of related units of competency (Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

Certification of Completion

A record of the successful completion of a term of apprenticeship (see WAC 296-05-323)

Certificate of Program Registration (COPR)

Refers to the document issued by the authority to a concerned institution as a manifestation that the TVET program offered complies with the minimum requirements or standards prescribed by the authority. (TESDA Circular No. 25, s. 2007, “Omnibus Guidelines on Program Registration under UTPRAS”)

Certificate of Authentication and Verification (C.A.V)

A procedure wherein documents are authenticated and certified as authentic by TESDA and conforms to the service standards set by the authentication process of the Office of Consular Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA). (Memorandum of Agreement on Issuance of CAV)


Written approval by the WSATC of: A set of apprenticeship standards established by an apprenticeship program sponsor and substantially conforming to the standards established by the WSATC. An individual as eligible for probationary employment as an apprentice under a registered apprenticeship program. Committee program: All apprenticeship programs as further described in WAC 296-05-309

Certification Rate

The proportion (in percent) of persons who passed the national competency assessment to the total who took competency assessment for or within a given period. (2005 IACES)


The Code of Federal Regulations

Class of Worker

Classified to seven categories, namely:

  1. Work for private household – these are employed persons working in a private household for pay, in cash or in kind;
  2. Work for private establishment – these are persons working in a private establishment for pay, in cash or in kind. This category includes not only persons working for a private industry but also those working for a religious group, missionary, unions, and non-profit organizations. Examples of persons working for a private establishment are public transport drivers who do not own the vehicle but drive them on boundary basis, persons working in public works projects on private contractors, dock hands or stevedores, cargo handlers in railroad station or piers, etc.;
  3. Work for government/government corporation – these are persons working for the government or a government corporation or any of its instrumentalities. This category of worker includes the following workers: chaplains in the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Filipinos working in embassies, legation, chancelleries or consulates of foreign government in the Philippines and those working in international organizations of Sovereign States of Governments like the United nations (UN), World health Organization (WHO), etc.;
  4. Self-employed – these are persons who operate their own businesses or trades and do not employ paid workers in the conduct of their economic activities. This category includes workers who worked purely on commission basis and who may not have regular working hours;
  5. Employers – these are persons who employ one or more paid employees in the operation of their businesses or trades. Thus, domestic helpers, family drivers and other household helpers who assist in the family-operated business, regardless of time spent in this activity, are not hired employees in the enterprise/business. A farm or business proprietor who is assisted purely by such domestic help is not also considered an employer;
  6. Worked with pay on own-family operated farm or business – members of the family who receive cash or fixed share of the produce as payment for their services in a farm or business operated by another member living in the same household; 
  7. Work without pay on own-family farm or business – members of the family who assist another member in the operation of the family farm or business enterprise and who do not receive any wage or salary for their work. (NSO)

Closer Report

A report being submitted to the National Quality Management Committee (NQMC) regarding the status of actions taken by the Auditee as per compliance audit findings. (Procedures Manual on Compliance Audit)


A partnership of two or more organizations that agreed to manage training facilities by adhering to distinct and shared responsibilities under a formal agreement for the implementation of training and training-related functions. (TESDA Memorandum dated 11/03/2001)

Community-Based Training

Refers to short-term programs conducted or coordinated by NGOs, LGUs, training centers and other TVET providers which are intended to address the specific needs of a community. Such programs are usually conducted in informal settings such as barangay hall, basketball courts and other available venues in a community. (TRUGA Manual)


As used in TESDA, this term refers to: a) the application of knowledge, skills and attitude required to complete a work activity in a range of context and environment to the standard expected in the workplace (Procedures Manual on TR Development); or b) the possession and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to the standard of performance required in the workplace. (Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

Competency Assessment Tools

Are the actual instruments that the competency assessor uses to collect evidence. These shall be in the forms of observation/demonstration, oral interview, written test, portfolio or third party report. (Implementing Guidelines on PTQS)

Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC)

The specifications for a course or subject (module) which describes all the learning experiences a student or learner undergoes, generally includes learning outcomes, contents, conditions, methodologies, and assessment methods. It specifies outcomes which are consistent with the requirements of the workplace as agreed through industry or community consultations. (Quality Procedures Manual – CBC Development)

Competency Field

Describes the qualification/ occupational area. Each occupational area has a specific code number.

Competency Standard

A Competency Standard is an industry determined specification of performance that describes the minimum skill, knowledge and attributes necessary to be applied in the performance of a particular function in the workplace.

As used in TESDA, this term refers to industry-determined specification of competencies required for effective work performance. They are expressed as outcomes and they focus on workplace activity rather than training or personal attributes and capture the ability to apply skills in new situations and changing work organization. (Training Regulations Framework)

*See Table 2*

Context of Assessment

On the job or institution/school, which will be a simulated activity.

Contingency Management Skills

Refers to the ability to respond appropriately to irregularities and breakdown in routine.

Competence Based Training

A series of learning  experiences through which an individual progresses at his her own pace  from entry level to final competence in the skills required for his/her  chosen occupation and for which master; is continuously assessed against  appropriate pre-determined standards of competence.

Cross-Sectoral Groups

A subset of two or more sectors that could, in some instances, be an occupation or a group representing an occupation.

Course Title

Refers to the name of the program to be offered. It is usually derived from the qualification title of the training regulations or it takes the qualification title of the training regulations if the program is designed to cover the entire qualification. (Procedures Manual on Program Registration)

Critical Skills

Skills that are essential and/or indispensable in the operations of a firm or group of firms within an industry as identified by industry experts. (Philippine TVET Outlook: 2005-2010)


Systematic group of courses or sequences of subjects required for a graduation or certification in a major field of study; or

  1. A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the school should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification of entrance into a professional or vocational field; or
  2. A body of prescribed educational experience under school supervision, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for a trade or profession. (Manual of Policies and Guidelines on the Establishment and Operation of Public and Private TVET Institutions, First Ed., 2001) and
  3. Any type of instructional and learning materials to be delivered using a computer and/or internet. (TESDA Circular No. 37, s. 2009, Implementing Guidelines in the Registration of E-Learning Training Program)

Current Instruction

The related/supplemental instructional content is and remains reasonably consistent with the latest trade practices, improvements, and technical advances.


** Table 2: The components of the Competency standard include:


Competency Field

Describe the qualification/ occupational area. Each occupational area has a specific code number.

Unit Title

Describe a broad area of performance within the occupational area. Each occupational area is comprised of several units. Each Unit title carries a Unit code.

Competency Description

Is a summary statement that describes the competency within the unit.


These are the building blocks of a unit. One unit may be made up of two or more elements. They specify the broad activities a person has to carry out.

Performance Criteria

Specify what is to be assessed and the required level of performance.

Range Statements

Describe the condition under which the task must be performed. It provides a focus for the assessment and places the performance criteria and element into context.

Underpinning Knowledge and Skills

This is the foundation knowledge required to perform the unit of work, and the skills required to demonstrate the competence.

Critical Aspects of the Evidence

Specify the important evidence to be collected during the assessment. Assist the Assessor to target the evidence. Identified by the symbols of a circle or square.

Critical Employability Skills

These are generic competencies that are necessary for effective workplace performance

Resource Implication

Resources required to gather evidence for the assessment of the unit standard.

Context for Assessment

Specifies whether competency can be assessed in a simulated environment or in the workplace




Delivery Mode

Refers to the venue of training such as: school-based, centre-based, enterprise-based, and community-based or the system or the methodology itself such as the traditional or structured type conducted by semester and the competency-based which is self-paced and not time bound.


The Department of Labour & Industries.

Direct Evidence

An actual product or outcome of work done in an occupational area, from which the applicant can bring samples of their work

Direct Training Cost

Item of costs that are specifically traced to, or caused by the training. Items include, among others, consumables used in the course of the program, training supplies, materials, utilities, venue and equipment.

Distance Learning

A method of competency acquisition which employs print, radio, television, computer-based communications, satellite broadcasting, teleconferencing or other educational technologies which allows students to study on their own without having to regularly attend classes in conventional classrooms, or education imparted at a distance through communication media: radio, TV, telephone, correspondence, computer or video. (ILO)

Distinctive Area of Competence (DAC)

Core curricular offering with respect to school strength and needs of community.

Dualized Training Program

A transitory phased implementation modality of DTS. It facilitates and leads the partnership arrangements between school and the workplace into DTS (RA 7686) modality overtime. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)

Dual Training System (DTS)

An instructional delivery system of technical and vocational education and training that combines in-plant and in-school training based on a training plan collaboratively designed and implemented by an accredited dual system agricultural, medical, industrial and business establishments. (DTS Law – Section 4-b of RA 7686)




Umbrella term for providing computer instruction (courseware) on-line over the public internet, private distance learning networks or in house via an internet (TESDA Circular No. 37, s. 2009, “Implementing Guidelines on the Registration of E-learning Training Program”)


Elements describe the tasks that make up the broader function or job, described by the unit. These are the building blocks of a unit specifying the critical outcomes to be achieved in demonstrating competence

Elements of Competency

The skills described in outcome terms, that a person must be able to perform in order to complete the work activity as indicated by the unit of competency. (TESDA Board Resolution No.2004-13)


Include all those who, during the reference period are 15 years old and over as of their last birthday and are reported either:

  1. At work - those who do any work even for one hour during the reference period for pay or work without pay on the farm or business enterprise operated by a member of the same or related by blood, marriage or adoption; or
  2. With a job but not at work – those who have a job or business but are not at work be it temporary or temporary illness/injury, vacation or other reasons. Likewise, persons who expect to return or to start operation of a farm or business enterprise within two weeks from the date of the enumerator’s visit, are considered employed. (NSO)

Employment Rate

  1. Percentage of the total number of employed persons to the total number of persons in the labour force. (NSO)
  2. As used in TESDA, the term refers to the ratio (in percent) of employed TVET graduates to the total number of graduates.


The total number of students or trainees who have registered in a given course or program. (2005 IACES)


A participating establishment that directly engages an apprentice based on an approved Apprenticeship/Learnership Program. (Revised Guidelines in the Implementation of Apprenticeship and Learnership Programs)

Enterprise-Based Program

Training program being implemented within companies/firms. These programs can be any of the following: (Revised Guidelines in the Implementation of Apprenticeship and Learnership Programs)

  1. Apprenticeship Program;
  2. Learnership Program;
  3. Dual Training System.

Enterprising Training

A training scheme to develop persons for self-employment or for organizing, financing and/or managing an enterprise.

Entry Qualifications (Requirements)

Refers to the minimum and “must” qualifications of a trainee to a training program that will ensure effective and efficient training.


The process of recognizing present competencies and giving credit towards additional qualification


Information produced in the form of written documents, pictures, work samples or demonstrations, used to substantiate a claim of competence attained through prior learning

Evidence Collection

The process of gathering information for portfolio creation and development

Evidence Guide

As used in TESDA, this term refers to a component of the unit of competency that defines or identifies the evidences required to determine the competence of the individual. It provides information on critical aspects of competency, underpinning knowledge, underpinning skills, resource implications, assessment method and context of assessment. (Training Regulations Framework)

Extension Program

An intervention focused on training and other related support services to people needing assistance, with the primary aim of building their capabilities for gainful and productive economic activities.

External Efficiency

The relationship between the resource invested (e.g. personnel salary, equipment, maintenance and other operating expenses) and the resulting benefits accruing later to the learners and the society (e.g. employment, earnings, productivity and contribution to economic growth).

External Verifier

The external verifier is a person who oversees and quality assures the assessment process. They must be a qualified assessor and must be able to scrutinize an assessment process against the specified criteria, e.g. fairness, objectivity, validity and the overall process adopted and approved by the awarding body.



Functional Analysis

A methodology or technique for developing occupational specifications, particularly the competencies inherent in a productive function which may be a broad function, an occupation, or a specific job. (F. Vargas Zuniga – 40 Questions on Labor Competency, Cinterfor/ILO, 2004)

Functional Literacy

The ability to communicate effectively, to solve problems scientifically, to think critically and creatively, to use resources sustainability and be productive, to develop one’s sense of community and to expand one’s world view. (Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC) Resolution No. 1, s. 2008 – DepED



Gender and Development Mainstreaming in TVET

Integration of GAD perspective into the analyses, formulation, monitoring and evaluation of TVET policies, programs and projects in the development agenda, with the ultimate goal to achieve gender equality. (UN)


The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels and the means by which States promote social cohesion, integration, and ensure the well-being of their population. It embraces all methods used to distribute power and manage public resources and the organizations that shape government and the execution of policy. It encompasses the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and resolve their differences. (Engendering Economic Governance, Social Research Center, United Nations Fund for Women)

Governance in TVET

Explicit designation of authority and powers as well as responsibilities and accountabilities. Governance statements regulate and enable decision-making and actions for the partners and participants who work within the TVET sector. (TESDA-PTTAF/CIDA Project Output Documents)

Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE)

Financial assistance to further the goal of improving quality and accessibility in private education particularly in the secondary, post-secondary (TVET) and higher education levels. DepED, TESDA and CHED supervise the administration and implementation at the different education levels, respectively. (RA 8545/GASTPE Law)


A student or trainee who was enrolled in a particular course and has completed the requirements set for that course/program. (2006 IACES)



Higher Education

The stage of formal education following the secondary education covering the programs on: a) all courses of study leading to bachelor’s degree, and b) all degree courses of study beyond bachelor’s degree level.

Higher Education Institution

A legal entity that offers at least one program leading to a higher education credential.

Higher Education Program

A course of study leading to an initial or higher bachelor’s degree, as well as formal graduate studies leading to master’s, doctoral or similar degree.



In-Company Training

The portion of the DTS program where students/trainees receive practical learning by being integrated in the regular work system of an establishment.

Industry Immersion

The process of deploying TVET trainers to industries/companies to enhance their skills, knowledge and attitudes in their area of specialization to be applied to their training centers for quality TVET training.

Industry Working Group

A group composed of representatives of industry associations, organizations, TVET institutions, labour groups and concerned government agencies who are working directly with TESDA in skills planning, standards development, assessment and certification, and promotion of TVET.

In-Plant Training

Any training (including apprenticeship) provided on the premises of an undertaking in which the trainee is employed; may be given on the job or off the job or in a combination of the two. (ILO)

In-School Training

Portion of the Dual Training System (DTS) program where students/trainees receive technology based theoretical instruction on a lecture area and hands-on exercises in a laboratory and/or a workshop within the premises of a Technical Vocational Institute.

In-Service Training

Training and professional development of staff, often sponsored by the employer, and usually provided during normal working hours.

Institutional Assessment

An assessment undertaken by the institution for its students to determine their achievement of the learning outcomes in the module of instructions in given unit of competency or clusters of competencies. (TESDA Board Resolution No. 2004-13, “Training Regulations Framework”)

Institutional Development Plan

A document which serves as an institutional road-map to development within a specific period of time which provides strategic analysis and recommendations for organizations to grow in their educational programs, enrollment, marketing and financial development.

Internal Efficiency

The relationship between utilization of educational resources and results.

Internal Quality Audit

A process to review the practice against documented procedures usually carried out by auditors within the organization. (TESDA Quality Manual dated 1/15/2010)

Internal Verifier

An Internal Verifier (IV) is a person with direct responsibility for the quality assurance of the assessment process in an approved centre and in any of its satellite sites in which candidates are assessed. The IV will be sufficiently experienced in assessment in the occupational area. Even where a centre has only one Assessor, an IV must be appointed to discharge the above duties. A large centre may appoint an IV Coordinator, or lead IV, where more than one IV is involved within that centre.




A set of tasks and duties executed, or meant to be executed, by one person; a regular activity performed in exchange for payment, especially as part of one's trade, occupation, or profession. (ISCO – 88,

Job Analysis

The process of examining a job in detail to identify its component tasks; the detail and approach may vary according to the purpose for which the job is being analyzed, e.g., training, equipment design, work layout. (The Glossary of Training Terms, United States Department of Employment, 1978)

Job Role /Environment Skills

Refer to the need to fulfil the requirements and expectations of the organization. Seven (7) generic skills were identified by organizations for this purpose namely teamwork, communication, planning and organizing, problem solving mathematical, analytical and technological. The Assessor is required to show how these seven generic skills relate to the activity given.


Indicates a program that is jointly sponsored by a group of employers and a labour organization with a collective bargaining agreement. It is administered by employer and employee representatives from an apprenticeship and training committee composed equally from management and labour.

Journey Level

An individual who has sufficient skills and knowledge of a trade, craft, or occupation, either through formal apprenticeship training or through practical on-the-job work experience, to be recognized by a state or federal registration agency and/or an industry as being fully qualified to perform the work of the trade, craft, or occupation. Practical experience must be equal to or greater than the term of apprenticeship.

Apprenticeship Committee



Key Competencies

Any of several generic skills or competencies considered essential for people to participate effectively in the workforce. Key competencies apply to work generally, rather than being specific to work in a particular occupation or industry. Seven key competencies have been identified: collecting, analyzing and organizing information; communicating ideas and information; planning and organizing activities; working with others and in teams; using mathematical ideas and techniques; solving problems; and using technology.

(National Training System Glossary, Australia sectors / training training_ skills/policy_issues_reviews/key_issues/nts/glo/Labour Force The population 15 years old and over, whether employed or unemployed, who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country, (NSO)

Key Performance Measure

One of a set of measures used to monitor or evaluate the efficiency or effectiveness of a system, which may be used to demonstrate accountability and to identify areas for improvement.



Labour Force

The population 15 years old and over, whether employed or unemployed, who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country, (NSO)

Labour Force Participation Rate

The proportion (in percent) of the total number of persons in the labour force to the total population 15 years old and over. (NSO)

Labour Market

A system consisting of employers as buyers and workers as sellers, the purpose of which is to match job vacancies with job applicants and to set wages. (ILO)

Labour Supply

Refers to the supply of workers, hours or effort for the production of goods and services, and is determined by the size of the population, the proportion able and willing to work and the number of hours worked by each individual. (ILO)


The mechanism by which programs are linked to enable students to progress through levels of qualifications, between providers or sectors.


As used in TESDA, the term refers to persons hired as trainees in semi-skilled and other industrial occupations which are non-apprenticeable. (Revised Guidelines in the of implementation Apprenticeship and Learnership Programs)


A relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a direct result of experience.

Learning Element

A component of modular training programs, in particular the ILO Modules of Employable Skill (MES), comprising detailed instructions on techniques needed for the performance of one or more specific tasks; corresponds to "learning module" in other modular programs. (ILO Thesaurus, 2005

Learning Outcomes

The set of knowledge, skills and/or competencies an individual has acquired and/or is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process, formal, non-formal or informal. (Terminology of European Education and Training Policy, Cedefop, 2008)

Life Long Learning

The process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes throughout life via education, training, work and general life experiences.

Literacy Rate

Percentage of the population who can read and write and understand simple messages in any language or dialect. (2006 Inter-Agency Committee on Education Statistics (IACES)

Livelihood Program

A socio-economic project that seeks to motivate, prepare and train workers to embark on income-generating and service-oriented activities geared towards promoting self-sufficiency and initiative among the workers. (Investment in Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Philippines)




Teaching and training personnel (ILO)

Middle –Level Skilled Manpower

Those who have acquired practical skills and knowledge through formal, non-formal and informal education and training to at least a secondary education but preferably a post-secondary education with a corresponding degree or diploma; or skilled workers who have become highly competent in their trade or craft as attested by industry. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)

Modular Training

A system where training content is divided into independent units or modules which can be combined to form a program suited to individual needs, technical developments, or occupational structure, etc., permitting continuous adaptation of the program. (ILO Thesaurus, 2005



National Assessment

This refers to the assessment of an individual’s competence that leads to the issuance of a National Certificate (NC) or a Certificate of Competency (COC). (TESDA Board Resolution No. 2004-13, Training Regulations Framework)

National Certificate

A certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. NCs are aligned to specific levels within the PTQF. (TESDA Board Resolution No. 2004-13, Training Regulations Framework)

National Certificate Level

Refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the PTQF. Where the worker in:

  1. NC I performs a routine and predictable tasks; has little judgment; and, works under supervision;
  2. NC II performs prescribe range of functions involving known routines and procedures; has limited choice and complexity of functions, and has little accountability;
  3. NC III performs a wide range of skills; works with some complexity and choice; contributes to problem solving and work processes; and, shows responsibility for self and others; and
  4. NC IV performs a wide range of applications; have responsibilities that are complex and non-routine; provides some leadership and guidance of others; and, performs evaluation and analysis of work practices and the development of new criteria and procedures. (TESDA Circular No.23, s. 2008 – Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

National Community College

A rationalized and  integrated system for the governance of tertiary level education which  will be in the form of a multi-campus college incorporating a number of  existing institutions such as the John S. Donaldson Technical Institute,  the San Fernando Technical Institute, the Point Fortin Government  Vocational Institute, the Eastern Caribbean Institute of Agriculture and  Forestry, the Metal Industries Company Ltd, the Joint Services Staff  College and Ministry of Health Nursing Programmes.

National Human Resource Management Information System (NHRMIS)

A computerized human resource management database system to be managed by the Ministry of Labour and Co-operatives.

National Training Plan

A strategy for  effectively identifying the level and type of training required and  putting in place appropriate provision to raise the nation's skill-base,  in keeping with the NTA's policies, vision, mission, goals and  objectives.

National Qualification

A qualification that is defined by nationally promulgated Training Regulations and is created by combining units of competency into groups that correspond to meaningful job roles in the workplace and aligning these with a national qualifications framework, in this case PTQF. (Training Regulations Framework


Indicates a program where there is no labour organization or collective bargaining agreement. It is sponsored by employer association(s) and administered by an apprenticeship committee composed equally from employer and employee representatives





Refers to the statement of facts concerning practices and behaviours that are being adopted by the institution/area that are outside the program registration requirements. (Procedures Manual on Program Registration)


A set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are characterized by a high degree of similarity. (ISCO – 88,

Occupational Analysis

Process or method for identifying the activities and requirements of workers and the technical and environmental factors of the occupation through observation, interview and study. It comprises identifying the tasks involved in the occupation together with the skills, knowledge, aptitudes and responsibilities that are required from the worker for the correct performance of the occupation, which facilitates its differentiation among the rest. (ILO-Cinterfor

Occupational Standards

These specify the standards of competence people are expected to reach in a particular occupational area, including knowledge and understanding. They also provide the basis for assessment, which is crucial to their use in competence-based vocational qualifications. The standards are defined and kept up-to-date by standards-setting bodies, and are recognized by the NTA.


A workshop held at a Workforce Assessment Centre to officially inform applicants about the PLAR System




See Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition.

Peer Teaching

A training modality wherein fast learners are given the opportunity to assist slow learners (Training Regulations Framework)

Performance Criteria

Are evaluative statements that specify what is to be assessed and the required level of performance. (Training Regulations Framework)

Performance Standards

The ability to perform competencies in keeping with occupational and industrial specifications.

Petitions, requests, and correspondence

Any written business brought before the WSATC (examples may include:

  1. Requests for new committees
  2. Requests for revisions to the standards
  3. Appeals.

Philippine TVET Qualification Framework

A quality-assured framework meant to serve as comprehensive, nationally consistent yet flexible system for giving recognition to the attainment of competence along the middle level occupations. (Procedures Manual on TR Development)

Philippine TVET Qualification (PTQCS)

A quality assured system in recognition of the attainment of competencies.


Indicates a program for a single physical location or a group of physical locations owned by the sponsor

Probability of Credits

The process where competencies learned is considered for academic credit toward a higher educational qualification.


A compilation of documents that supports the candidate’s claim of competence that was acquired from prior learning and experience

Portfolio Assessment

Refers to the process of determining whether an applicant is competent through evaluation of his/her records of achievement. (TESDA Circular No.23, s. 2008 - Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)

Prevailing Wage

The hourly wage, usual benefits and overtime, paid in the largest city in each county to the majority of workers, labourers, and mechanics. Prevailing wages are established by the Department of Labour & Industries for each trade and occupation employed in the performance of public work. They are established separately for each county and are reflective of local wage conditions. (RCW 31.12.010 and 015)

Private Education Student Financial Assistance (PESFA)

The program that will afford education grants to deserving students in private post-secondary non-degree TVET coursed in line with the skills requirements of the priority sectors identified in the National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan; a financial assistance program for incoming freshmen enrolled in private schools in priority courses deemed necessary for national development. (RA 8545/GASTPE Law)


Initial: The period following the apprentice's acceptance into the program which is limited in time by these rules and during which the apprentice's appeal rights are impaired. Disciplinary: A time assessed when the apprentice's progress is not satisfactory. During this time the program sponsor may withhold periodic wage advancements, suspend or cancel the apprenticeship agreement, or take further disciplinary action. A disciplinary probation may only be assessed after the initial probation is completed. During the disciplinary probation, the apprentice has the right to file an appeal of the committee's action with the WSATC (as described in WAC 296-05-009)

Project Based Assessment

Assessing student performance on project work. This is different from assessing traditional class work, because students are working in different project with different timelines. The teacher’s task of assessing students is more complex than for typical classroom teacher’s instruction where everyone is evaluated together.

Project-Based Instruction

An authentic instructional model or strategy in which students plan, implement and evaluate projects that have real world applications. (TESDA Board Resolution No. 2004-13, “Training Regulations Framework”)

Provincial Regional Skills Priorities

List of critical skills in identified priority sectors classified by province/region.

Psalm Approach

PSALM is an acronym for a planning approach developed and adopted by TESDA which stands for Policy-oriented, Sector-focused, Area-based, Labour Market driven approach. It is used in generating labour market information on priority sectors and critical skills, vital for TESD planning and decision making.



Quality Audit

Refers to methodical examination of an organization’s quality management system, in whole or in part, to assure conformance to a specific quality standard (e.g., ISO 9001). Quality audits may be conducted by external (third) parties or they may be done internally. “Certification audits” must be conducted by third-party auditors. (ISO)

Quality Auditor

One who conducts quality audit; must be qualified to conduct quality audits. (ISO)


A certificate of achievement or competence specifying the title of the award.

Qualifications Framework

The structure for identifying vocational qualifications in terms of level and sectoral classification, in accordance with the competence-based system.

Quality Assurance

The process of ensuring that the degree of excellence specified within the approved Standards or Qualification is achieved. It is the audit system adopted by the  Awarding Body to ensure that approved centres meet the criteria for all  activities associated with achieving and maintaining standards for the  delivery of CVQs.

Quality Control

Part of quality management focused in fulfilling quality requirements.

Quality Document

A document that contains requirements for quality system elements for products or services. The results of activities such as inspections or quality audits. (ISO)

Quality Improvement

The actions taken to increase the value to the customer by improving the effectiveness and efficiency of processes and activities throughout the organizational structure. (ISO)

Quality Management Principles

Used by management as a guide towards improving performance. The Quality Management Principles were derived from the experience of experts on the technical committees and represent the main elements that a good quality system must have. The eight principles are: Customer Focus, Leadership, Involvement of People, Process Approach, Systems Approach to Management, Continual Improvement, Factual Approach to Decision-making, and Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationship. (ISO)

Quality Management Systems

The totality of an organization's management processes designed to meet identified quality standards.



Recognition of Compentency

The process in which the competency/ies currently possessed by an individual can be assessed against the relevant unit of competency and may be given recognition through the issuance of appropriate certificate.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)

The process in which the individual’s previous learning outside the formal system which contributes to the achievement of current competency/ies can be assessed against the relevant unit of competency and given recognition through the issuance of appropriate certificate.

Regional Occupational Standards (ROS)

National Occupational Standards that have been regionally approved by CARICOM

Registered Training Providers (RTP)

A training provider that has successfully completed the first phase of centre approval with the NTA

Registry of Certified Workers

Serves as depository of data of individuals who have undertaken TESDA competency assessment. It provides information on the pool of certified workers for various qualifications nationwide and facilitate verification of the certificate status of workers. (TESDA Circular No.23, s. 2008 - Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)


A prescribed set of criteria and conditions which will include among other things, procedures, rules, specifications and standards for regulating and monitoring a system of vocational qualifications and accreditation by the NTA.

Regulatory Body

An organisation appointed by the Government to establish national standards for qualifications and to ensure consistent compliance with them.


Training for acquisition of skills and knowledge required in practicing an occupation other than the one for which the person was originally trained. It may require training specialization.



Sectoral Skills Plan

A document which contains the trends and prospects of a particular industry demand and supply, goals, strategies, policies and programs and serves as a planning tool for addressing industry skill needs and a decision making framework for both government and private sector.


A national group of companies, organisations or workers which share some relevant combination of products, services or technology which results in their having common human resource concerns.

Self-Paced Learning

Learning undertaken at an individual’s or group’s own pace or ability to absorb/acquire skills and knowledge.

Short-Term Program

Programs offered in-campus, be it in-school or in-center, by unit of competency or cluster of competencies leading to a qualification eligible for a Certificate of Competency. Comprises the basic, common and a unit/cluster of units of core competencies.

Skilled Worker

A person who has acquired the full qualifications required in performing a recognized trade, craft or other occupation.


The acquired and practiced ability to carry out a task or job. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)

Skills Certification

Formal recognition of workers' skill qualifications, independent of the manner in which they were acquired. (ILO).

Skills Development

The process through which learners and workers are systematically provided with learning required as qualifications for a job or range of jobs in a given occupation area.

Skills Priorities

List of skills considered critical to the growth of priority sectors and industries at national, regional and provincial levels.


A person or organization with an interest or concern in something. In vocational education and training stakeholders include government, providers of training, industry, clients and the community.

Standards-Setting Body

An organisation responsible for formulating standards of competence for an occupational area and reviewing them in the light of employers' needs. These will mainly be bodies approved by the NTA but may be other regulatory or professional bodies which have been given authority from the government of Trinidad and Tobago to carry out these functions.

State Assistance Council (SAC)

The organized body tasked for policy guidance and direction, monitoring and evaluation of new and existing programs and the promulgation of the rules and regulations governing GASTPE. (RA 8545/GASTPE Law)

Sub-State Assistance Council (SUB-SAC)

A sub-unit of the SAC to assist in each of the three levels of private education, i.e. secondary education, post-secondary vocational and technical education and higher education. It shall provide support and technical assistance particularly in the formulation of guidelines and criteria within the framework of GASTPE Law. (RA 8545/GASTPE Law)

Survey Instrument

Formal set of questions or statements designed to gather the information from respondents to accomplish the goals of the study.




A discrete, assignable unit of work that has an identifiable beginning and end, containing two or more steps which when performed, leads to a product, service or decision. This is normally performed within a specified period of time.

Task Analysis

The process of analyzing each task to determine the steps involved, performance standards, tools, and equipment needed, related knowledge, safety, attitudes, and decisions expected of workers performing it.

Tax Incentives

A host of tax benefits given to participating schools and companies in the Dual Training System. These are tax deductions from taxable income for dual training expenses, donations and contributions granted to participating establishments and tax-free importation of equipment, apparatus and materials to participating schools/training centres.

Technical Education

Refers to the education process designed at post-secondary and lower tertiary levels, officially recognized as non-degree programs aimed at preparing technicians, paraprofessionals and other categories of middle-level workers by providing them with a broad range of general education, theoretical, scientific, artistic and technological studies, social services and related job skills training. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Philippines) (TESDA)

An agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Labor and Employment responsible for managing and supervising technical education and skills development in the Philippines.

Technical Education and Skills development Committees (TESDCS)

Refers to the Regional and Provincial Technical Education and Skills Development Committees established by the Authority at the Regional and local levels to coordinate and monitor the delivery of Skills development activities by the public and private sectors. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)

Technical –Vocational Education and Training

The education or training process where it involves, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills relating to occupations in various sectors of economic life and social life, comprises formal (organized programs as part of the school system) and non-formal (organized classes outside the school system) approaches. (UNESCO)


A person who has acquired knowledge and skills of a more practical nature than those required of the qualified scientist, engineer on one hand, and more theoretical nature than those required of the skilled worker or craftsman, on the other. A technician’s education and training are likely to have taken him up at least up to a level equivalent to the end of secondary education in a general or technical stream, but usually to a post-secondary with a corresponding degree or diploma. (Note: a technician is the link between the skilled workers and the scientists or engineers.)


A systematic method of devising, applying and assessing the whole process of technology and learning by taking into account technical and human resources, inter-actions between these, so as to obtain a more effective form of education and training.

Technology-Based Community Program

A program covering a full qualification or clusters of units of competencies conducted in the community by public or private TVET institution or sponsored by local government units, non-government organizations, and other government agencies. (Omnibus Guidelines on Program Registration)

Tertiary Education

Formal education beyond secondary education, including higher education, vocational education and training, or other specialist post-secondary education or training; sometimes used to refer only to higher education or training.

TESDA Development Fund (TDF) Training Fund

A development fund established, to be managed/administered by TESDA, the income from which shall be utilized exclusively in awarding of grants and providing assistance to schools, training institutions, industries, local government units for upgrading their capabilities, and to develop and implement technical education and skills development programs. (RA 7796/TESDA Law)


Any group of interrelated jobs or any occupation which is traditionally or officially recognized as craft or artisan in nature requiring specific qualifications that can be acquired through work experience and/or training.


A person qualified to undergo the training system for the purpose of acquiring and developing job qualifications.

Training Capacity

Refers to the capacity of the training or education provider to absorb in terms of number of enrolees in a particular program and in terms of physical facilities.

Training Duration

Refers to the estimated minimum training hours usually expressed in hours wherein the learner is expected to complete a particular training module of program. (Procedures Manual on Program Registration)

Training Modality

A distinct system by which training is delivered. (Investment in TVET in the Philippines)

Training Needs Analysis

An analysis of the occupational and industrial training requirements both quantitatively and qualitatively in a particular cluster of occupations.

Training Provider

A public and private  institution or non-governmental organisation which provides training  and/or facilitates the training process for the acquisition of  competences in keeping with occupational and national standards,  accredited facilities and vocational qualifications, and appropriate  resources.

Training Regulation

A TESDA promulgated document that serves as basis for which the competency-based curriculum and instructional materials and competency assessment tools are developed. This document represents specific qualification. How the competencies in this qualification can be gained, assessed and be given recognition is detailed in this promulgated document. (TESDA Board Resolution No.2004-13 and Procedures Manual on TR Development)

Training Standards

Refers to the sections of the Training Regulations that gives information and important requirements for TVET providers to consider when designing training programs corresponding to a national qualification (see definition of qualification); this includes information on curriculum design, training delivery, trainee entry requirements, training tools and equipment, and trainer qualifications. (Training Regulations Framework)

Training Voucher

An entitlement to education or training issued to a learner or trainee and redeemable for the course and provider of the student’s choice.


Refers to the property of a unit of competency to be used in a range of different contexts within an industry in across industries or across industries.

Tution Fees

Money charged by private and public schools on instruction, excluding laboratory fees, medical fees and other fees.

TVET Students

Persons who are participants in a vocational, administrative or technical training program for the program of acquiring and developing job competencies

U, V, W, Y


Underpinning Knowledge and Skills

This is the foundation knowledge required to perform the Unit of work, and the skills required to demonstrate the competence

Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation program (UTPRAS) Centre Approval Process

Two-stage process of quality assurance which is composed of the following: Program Registration - refers to the first stage of the Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS). It is the process by which TVET courses are registered with TESDA. Course of registration describes the intent of the institution offering TVET Programs. The registration process tests the capacity of the TVI to deliver its stated curricula to students against the minimum standards prescribed in the Training Regulations (TRs) or as determined by an expert panel in the absence of such. Registration begins with all documentation submitted to TESDA and continues compliance to the requirements for programs granted Certificate of Program Registration (CoPR). (Program Registration Procedures Manual) Accreditation – means the process leading to the issuance of a certificate of accredited status attesting to the quality or standards of a public or private TVET school or to any of its TVET programs or courses and to the effectiveness of the management and operations of the TVET school offering the program as exceeding the minimum standards or criteria prescribed by the Authority as provided for in the Manual of Policies and Guidelines on the Establishment of Public and Private TVET Institution. Accreditation shall be voluntary in nature. (Manual of Policies and Guidelines on the Establishment of Public and Private TVET Institution, First Edition)

Unit Title

A broad area of performance within the occupational area. Each occupational area is comprised of several units. Each Unit title carries a Unit code.

User- Led or market –Driven Strategy

A strategy that promotes strengthened linkages between educational/training institutions and industry to ensure that appropriate skills and knowledge are provided by the educational center. (PSALM Approach)

Vocational Qualification

A qualification obtained from an awarding body as a result of pursuing competence-based training at an approved center in keeping with occupational standards of competence, assessment and certification.

Washington State Apprenticeship and Training Council (WSATC)

The Washington State Apprenticeship and Training Council (WSATC) as the regulatory body responsible for developing, administering, and enforcing apprenticeship program standards (Standards) for the operation and success of apprenticeship and training programs in the State of Washington.


Portion of the population between 15 – 30 years of age (RA 8044/Youth in Nation-building Act)

Youth Profiling for Starring Career

A complete guidance delivery system to help young Filipinos make the right career choices, based on an objective assessment of their abilities and occupational interests (YP4SC Publication)